How the “New” Scramble for Africa is Undermining Human Rights


by: Marie-Alix Depuydt

Often referred to as the 21st-century Silk Road or the Chinese Marshall Plan, the Belt and Road Initiative, funded and initiated by China, aims to obtain greater political and economic power in a vaster range of land. This project is composed of both land corridors [belt] and maritime lanes [road]. Both routes take place in over 70 countries [accounting for over 2/3 of the world population and ¼ of global GDP], creating a vast network of railways, energy pipelines, highways, and over 50 special economic zones. These projects are often attractive to low-income and low-growth nations who struggle to find the finances to construct and improve current infrastructure. Hence, China’s low-interest loans are extremely appealing as opposed to aid grants, and as stated in the conditions, Chinese firms and workers must be hired for the projects, enhancing the benefits reaped by China. However, these loans do not come without dire consequences for the countries involved. Sri Lanka, for example, was obliged to lease their port to a Chinese company for 99 years as it was unable to repay the loans it had made, putting its sovereignty at risk. Additionally, eight more countries have been found to be at risk of financial collapse, including those that are the poorest in their regions and owe more than half of their foreign debt to China.

China is conquering the world through modern economic imperialist projects, giving it immense leverage over much smaller [geographic and economic] countries. The problem lies in the construction and financing of infrastructure projects. Many of these have drawn international attention as projects facilitate corruption and offer concerning levels of the work environment. Many projects, such as the $1.4 trillion Sri Lankan project, have caused protests and civil uprisings due to environmental harm; however, due to corruption within the BRI, these have not been made public. Additionally, the construction of a hydroelectric dam [Lower Sesan 2] in northern Cambodia has created a permanent flood displacing over 5000 indigenous and ethnic minorities. The concerns of those impacted were largely ignored by China or forced to accept inadequate compensation for their lost wealth and assets. Despite constant protests and appeals to address Cambodian concerns, officials repeatedly dismissed those, and instead, most were threatened with being jailed. This project thus failed to align itself with the international UN human rights for indigenous people deteriorating any remainder of sovereignty and human rights. Myanmar, Djibouti, and many others have also been faced with the inexcusable damage of national independence and authority, which are already limited due to poor governance and high levels of corruption.


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Does Qatar being the host of the World Cup predict future hosts?

by: Marie-Alix Depuydt

The FIFA world cup: a global event occurring every four years, where countries play it out to become the next world champion. This year, in 2022, Qatar was selected as the host country in the hopes of bridging the gap between the Arab world and the West and attracting tourists and greater wealth. In order to enable the proceeding of the world cup, the country had to construct eight new stadiums, hundreds of hotels, new metro systems, and more, costing a total of $220 billion. Even though the cup brought 1.2 million tourists to Qatar, it drew immense media scrutiny and international commendation. This is due to the high number [30,000] of migrant workers [coming from Bangladesh, Nepal, and India…] hired to specifically build stadiums. Since 2010, when Qatar won the bid for hosting, 6500 workers have died as a result of inhumane conditions, such as unclean accommodation, withheld wages, confiscated passports, and being forced to pay immense recruitment fees. FIFA, the responsible agent, did not act sufficiently and in accordance with the UN’s guiding principles to protect workers from abuse, deaths, and injuries.

Moreover, not only are migrant workers poorly treated, but LGBTQ+ also attain less than adequate human rights in the country. Qatar represses the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, and punishments such as conversion therapy or ten years of prison exists for any consensual same-sex relations. Last October, authorities arrested six citizens, and all were subject to severe beatings and sexual harassment whilst in detention. International fans have even been told not to wear rainbow shirts or refuse entry as a result. However, one did manage to run across the pitch of the Portugal vs. Uruguay match with a rainbow flag with PEACE written on it, consequently being banned and revoked his permit. Additionally, players with the “OneLove” armbands were punished by FIFA itself. In response to the draconian human rights in Qatar, several teams boycotted the games, such as Germany, which covered their mouths during pre-match photos; whilst various international fans too decided to stop watching to send FIFA and Qatar a message.

As the world stops watching Qatar, it is in the hopes of many that the country will slowly begin changing its laws and human rights conditions to become a more habitable, equal, and accepting country for all, regardless of sexuality or nationality.

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How Gang Violence Has Consumed Haiti

By: Marie-Alix Depuydt

Over 200 gangs operate in Haiti. 95 of which in Port-au-Prince, the capital. In the past five years, the territorial control by gangs has increased, leading them to become mercenary partners to politicians and wealthy coordinators. Gangs now control over 60% of the capital’s territory, which will keep increasing due to the sense of impunity these gangs gave and the country’s growing poverty. President Moise’s death led to the fall of the political regime in July 2021, leading to the accelerated deterioration of living standards and basic human rights for the entire population.

Gangs have taken this period of economic and political instability as an opportunity to grasp control of economic sectors through kidnapping, raiding businesses, stealing food, and recently taking over the largest fuel terminal. The gang’s control has led to food, clean water, education, fuel, and health care blockades. With limited access to safe drinking water and a lack of hospital services, cholera has taken over the country, and the 1.8 million suffering from severe malnutrition are at an even greater risk of death. The past outbreak in 2010 lasted nine years, and NGOs fear that history may repeat itself if the global community takes no immediate action to end the food and water shortages, provide cholera vaccines and prevent loss of life. Due to the lack of basic human needs, this human rights crisis must be resolved and called upon by international actors shortly; otherwise, the situation will escalate.

Furthermore, Haitians live in constant fear, insecurity, and life-or-death situations. Rape, kidnapping, or killings have become the new weapon for gangs and a manner of punishment and suppression. These have displaced over 96 thousand Haitians and created a humanitarian and human rights crisis that deepens daily. In the capital, “¼ of girls and ⅕ of boys have been sexually abused” [UN, 2022], leaving them traumatized. Little seems to be done, as justice is often out of reach for victims, and no repercussions are faced by the perpetrators due to the poorly equipped and failing justice department. This systematic rupture and violation of human rights deteriorate all fundamental liberties in Haiti. International recognition of this sexual violence needs to occur, and help needs to be given to ensure the functioning of the justice system through greater security.

 Human rights should be entitled to all human beings by virtue of their humanity, without discrimination; however, as described above, this is not the case in Haiti due to worsened liberty and security, rising levels of torture/cruel and degrading treatment, and lack of access to basic necessities. This civil crisis demands international justice and intervention to help protect the lives of Haitians. If left unchecked, the authority of the territory [gangs] will spiral out of control and leave thousands further devastated by the intensely fragile social Haitian society for generations to come. It will also make resolution and peace building virtually impossible. Overall, if no or limited action occurs, social and economic development will be undermined, and lasting stability will be unlikely.


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Climate Change: Could This Be the Greatest Human Rights Abuse in History?

By: Vivian Allison

The Effects of Climate Change

“Climate change is a reality that now affects every region of the world. The human implications of currently projected levels of global heating are catastrophic. Storms are rising and tides could submerge entire island nations and coastal cities. Fires rage through our forests, and the ice is melting. We are burning up our future – literally.”

Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 9 September 2019, Opening Statement to the 42nd session of the Human Rights Council

It is undebatable that climate change is happening, and the culprit is human activity. An ever-increasing amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere lead to an increase in temperature and severe weather alterations. Rising sea levels, water shortages, droughts and the spread of diseases are all correlated to climate change. Further, devastating hurricanes, rainfalls, snowstorms, flooding, wildfires and heat waves make weather patterns unpredictable and life-threatening. It is not just the natural world that is suffering, but all of humanity as well. Consequently, along with the indisputability that climate change is taking place right now, it is without question a human rights abuse. 

Photo credits to Paddy O Sullivan

Climate Change as a Human Rights Abuse 

“As climate change intensifies, the inaction of our governments may render it to be the greatest human rights abuse in history.”

With the destruction that comes in the wake of climate change, basic human rights to food, clean water, and general health are undermined. The very survival of island states and coastal societies is in doubt as sea levels rise. With declining water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, and alarming health consequences, millions of people are affected by this crisis. It leaves entire nations homeless, sick, or without food and water. These are all breaches against human rights to life, water and sanitation, food, health, housing, self-determination, culture and development. 

However, these are not the only human rights breaches caused by climate change. Human rights to maintain sovereignty and economic well-being are compromised for those who experience the severe impacts of environmental degradation. Tragically, the countries that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions the least are often those that are the most affected. The disproportionate impacts of climate change are also felt by individuals who already face disadvantaged realities. Poverty, geography, gender, age, disabilities, culture and ethnic backgrounds contribute to the devastating effects of climate change, and therefore only intensifying these existing inequalities. 

By virtue of basic human rights and of the dignity to life, governments must intervene to curb the causes of climate change and protect the lives of our global community. Our current and future generations will experience these effects as environmental destruction intensifies. No nation, society, or individual will be exempt from these catastrophes, thus making it a global concern and a breach in every individual’s human rights. As climate change intensifies, the inaction of our governments may render it to be the greatest human rights abuse in history. 

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A Step Towards Corporate Accountability: Will Canada Be Open for Justice?

By: Haajar Abu Ismail

In 2014, three Eritreans filed a lawsuit against Nevsun Resources, in Vancouver, British Columbia. Claims of crimes against humanity, slavery, forced labor and torture were brought against Nevsun, whom owned 60% of the Eritrean mine where this took place. The unique case built solely upon the violations of international law sparked an ongoing discussion on whether companies at home could be held accountable for their role in crimes abroad. The question of whether the trial should be held at all was unprecedented, and after many years now, it was ruled that the case could proceed in Canadian courts. After a long process of back and forth, the case was finally scheduled to proceed in the Supreme Court of British Columbia in September 2021, nearly 7 years after its first appearance.

Photo credit to SEAN KILPATRICK – The Canadian Press

Canadian companies watched the case with wary eyes, wondering if they were now actually accountable for abuses abroad. Sadly, this was a necessary concern for corporations who have never had to worry about this before. The answer is an outstanding question, but it is a small victory that the trial will take place.

In the apparent spirit of morality, Canada appointed the Ombudsperson for Responsible Enterprise (CORE) in April, 2019. The role of the Ombudsperson is intended to be that of “a public official who acts as an impartial intermediary between the public government of bureaucracy,” focusing on “the oil, mining, gas and garment sectors” according to Amnesty International. However, after the appointment of Sheri Meyerhoffer, came the disappointing realization of Canada’s half-hearted intentions about taking corporate accountability abroad seriously. The Ombudsperson “may review cases but does not have the powers to independently investigate abuse allegations or compel documents from the parties to a complaint,” which Amnesty further claims to be a “dramatically different from what was promised in January, 2018.”

Any Canadian company with a role in the enslavement, forced labor or torture of workers abroad should be punished without question for their willful negligence of the basic human rights laborers are entitled to. Committing the crimes abroad does not make you any less of a criminal. The Ombusperson is a crucial appointment in affecting any real change about corporate accountability. Thus, it is essential that the Ombusperson has the actual, present, valid authority to take a step forward in betterment of human rights.

Check out for information on how to join CNCA’s Open for Justice campaign, and enforce Canadian mining, oil and gas companies to respect the human rights of their laborers.

For more information check out these articles by Amanda Coletta on the Supreme course case and by Cyndee Todgham Cherniak on the Ombudsperson For Responsible Enterprise

I Welcome Refugees

By Lucas Hak

With everyone now locked down in Canada and our worlds shrinking so dramatically, the notion of mass of immigrants and refugees could not be further from our current experience. However, this is still the reality for millions of individuals. On October 20th, McGill Students for Amnesty International and WUSC McGill hosted a showing of the documentary Human Flow by Ai Weiwei. This film seeks to tell the story of the millions of people who have been forcibly displaced from their homes. Set during the peak of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as focusing on displacements in the West Bank and Kenya, the messages of film are still prevalent today.

By the numbers

The large number of Syrians displaced due to war have largely remained either internally or externally displaced. There are over 6.6 million Syrians who are still taking refuge in other countries around the world, predominantly in Turkey and Germany, and another 6 million internally displaced individuals. More recently, over the last few years, the emigration of people from Venezuela has escalated to considerable levels in a very short time frame. Through the end of 2019 there were an estimated 4.5 million Venezuelans displaced primarily to Columbia and Peru.

These two migrations represent unfathomable challenges facing a truly incomprehensible number of people. However, these events are not unique, and only make up a small part of the approximately 100 million people who have been forcibly displaced from their homes due to some crisis. Of this number only 37 million were able to find a solution. The majority returned to their country or place of origin but many others were able to resettle or naturalize in another state.

From Migration to Resettling

Despite being the preferred solution for many refugees, there is little hope of returning to their original home. Instead they must settle in a new place, which often ends up being their country of asylum. This process is not easy and comes with many cultural and economic challenges. The World Bank estimates that 80% of the refugees in Uganda are unemployed. However, successful integration into a host can ultimately be the best option for both the settlers and the community. A series of reports by Deloitte Access Economics describes the advantages of the 800 Karen refugees who settled in Bendigo, Australia. The locals note that the new additions had “an unexpected and positive impact on the broader community”. The report also estimates an economic increase in excess of 67 million Australian dollars from settlers over a 10 year period. The positive outlook for the settlement of refugees is also present in Canada. After the first 5 years of arrival in Canada, refugees have similar economic prospects and unemployment as a Canadian born citizen. These refugees contribute back to their communities with higher entrepreneurial rates then Canadian born citizens. There are currently nearly 100,000 asylum cases pending for people trying to find security in Canada, and we should welcome as many of them as possible.

As we move towards the 70th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees, we are faced with the stark reality that the pressures forcing people to flee their homes are only increasing. It is our responsibility to support initiatives like Amnesty Canada’s I Welcome Refugees and reaffirm the global responsibility to protect the inherent right of all refugees and displaced persons to safety and security. 

Amnesty International Canada stands for increasing international cooperation to protect the rights of all humans. To join and contribute to the I Welcome Refugees campaign, find more information here.

Checkout the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and their reports for the current global trends in displacements here.