Climate Change: Could This Be the Greatest Human Rights Abuse in History?

By: Vivian Allison

The Effects of Climate Change

“Climate change is a reality that now affects every region of the world. The human implications of currently projected levels of global heating are catastrophic. Storms are rising and tides could submerge entire island nations and coastal cities. Fires rage through our forests, and the ice is melting. We are burning up our future – literally.”

Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 9 September 2019, Opening Statement to the 42nd session of the Human Rights Council

It is undebatable that climate change is happening, and the culprit is human activity. An ever-increasing amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere lead to an increase in temperature and severe weather alterations. Rising sea levels, water shortages, droughts and the spread of diseases are all correlated to climate change. Further, devastating hurricanes, rainfalls, snowstorms, flooding, wildfires and heat waves make weather patterns unpredictable and life-threatening. It is not just the natural world that is suffering, but all of humanity as well. Consequently, along with the indisputability that climate change is taking place right now, it is without question a human rights abuse. 

Photo credits to Paddy O Sullivan

Climate Change as a Human Rights Abuse 

“As climate change intensifies, the inaction of our governments may render it to be the greatest human rights abuse in history.”

With the destruction that comes in the wake of climate change, basic human rights to food, clean water, and general health are undermined. The very survival of island states and coastal societies is in doubt as sea levels rise. With declining water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, and alarming health consequences, millions of people are affected by this crisis. It leaves entire nations homeless, sick, or without food and water. These are all breaches against human rights to life, water and sanitation, food, health, housing, self-determination, culture and development. 

However, these are not the only human rights breaches caused by climate change. Human rights to maintain sovereignty and economic well-being are compromised for those who experience the severe impacts of environmental degradation. Tragically, the countries that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions the least are often those that are the most affected. The disproportionate impacts of climate change are also felt by individuals who already face disadvantaged realities. Poverty, geography, gender, age, disabilities, culture and ethnic backgrounds contribute to the devastating effects of climate change, and therefore only intensifying these existing inequalities. 

By virtue of basic human rights and of the dignity to life, governments must intervene to curb the causes of climate change and protect the lives of our global community. Our current and future generations will experience these effects as environmental destruction intensifies. No nation, society, or individual will be exempt from these catastrophes, thus making it a global concern and a breach in every individual’s human rights. As climate change intensifies, the inaction of our governments may render it to be the greatest human rights abuse in history. 

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A Step Towards Corporate Accountability: Will Canada Be Open for Justice?

By: Haajar Abu Ismail

In 2014, three Eritreans filed a lawsuit against Nevsun Resources, in Vancouver, British Columbia. Claims of crimes against humanity, slavery, forced labor and torture were brought against Nevsun, whom owned 60% of the Eritrean mine where this took place. The unique case built solely upon the violations of international law sparked an ongoing discussion on whether companies at home could be held accountable for their role in crimes abroad. The question of whether the trial should be held at all was unprecedented, and after many years now, it was ruled that the case could proceed in Canadian courts. After a long process of back and forth, the case was finally scheduled to proceed in the Supreme Court of British Columbia in September 2021, nearly 7 years after its first appearance.

Photo credit to SEAN KILPATRICK – The Canadian Press

Canadian companies watched the case with wary eyes, wondering if they were now actually accountable for abuses abroad. Sadly, this was a necessary concern for corporations who have never had to worry about this before. The answer is an outstanding question, but it is a small victory that the trial will take place.

In the apparent spirit of morality, Canada appointed the Ombudsperson for Responsible Enterprise (CORE) in April, 2019. The role of the Ombudsperson is intended to be that of “a public official who acts as an impartial intermediary between the public government of bureaucracy,” focusing on “the oil, mining, gas and garment sectors” according to Amnesty International. However, after the appointment of Sheri Meyerhoffer, came the disappointing realization of Canada’s half-hearted intentions about taking corporate accountability abroad seriously. The Ombudsperson “may review cases but does not have the powers to independently investigate abuse allegations or compel documents from the parties to a complaint,” which Amnesty further claims to be a “dramatically different from what was promised in January, 2018.”

Any Canadian company with a role in the enslavement, forced labor or torture of workers abroad should be punished without question for their willful negligence of the basic human rights laborers are entitled to. Committing the crimes abroad does not make you any less of a criminal. The Ombusperson is a crucial appointment in affecting any real change about corporate accountability. Thus, it is essential that the Ombusperson has the actual, present, valid authority to take a step forward in betterment of human rights.

Check out http://cnca-rcrce.ca/ for information on how to join CNCA’s Open for Justice campaign, and enforce Canadian mining, oil and gas companies to respect the human rights of their laborers.

For more information check out these articles by Amanda Coletta on the Supreme course case and by Cyndee Todgham Cherniak on the Ombudsperson For Responsible Enterprise

I Welcome Refugees

By Lucas Hak

With everyone now locked down in Canada and our worlds shrinking so dramatically, the notion of mass of immigrants and refugees could not be further from our current experience. However, this is still the reality for millions of individuals. On October 20th, McGill Students for Amnesty International and WUSC McGill hosted a showing of the documentary Human Flow by Ai Weiwei. This film seeks to tell the story of the millions of people who have been forcibly displaced from their homes. Set during the peak of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as focusing on displacements in the West Bank and Kenya, the messages of film are still prevalent today.

By the numbers

The large number of Syrians displaced due to war have largely remained either internally or externally displaced. There are over 6.6 million Syrians who are still taking refuge in other countries around the world, predominantly in Turkey and Germany, and another 6 million internally displaced individuals. More recently, over the last few years, the emigration of people from Venezuela has escalated to considerable levels in a very short time frame. Through the end of 2019 there were an estimated 4.5 million Venezuelans displaced primarily to Columbia and Peru.

These two migrations represent unfathomable challenges facing a truly incomprehensible number of people. However, these events are not unique, and only make up a small part of the approximately 100 million people who have been forcibly displaced from their homes due to some crisis. Of this number only 37 million were able to find a solution. The majority returned to their country or place of origin but many others were able to resettle or naturalize in another state.

From Migration to Resettling

Despite being the preferred solution for many refugees, there is little hope of returning to their original home. Instead they must settle in a new place, which often ends up being their country of asylum. This process is not easy and comes with many cultural and economic challenges. The World Bank estimates that 80% of the refugees in Uganda are unemployed. However, successful integration into a host can ultimately be the best option for both the settlers and the community. A series of reports by Deloitte Access Economics describes the advantages of the 800 Karen refugees who settled in Bendigo, Australia. The locals note that the new additions had “an unexpected and positive impact on the broader community”. The report also estimates an economic increase in excess of 67 million Australian dollars from settlers over a 10 year period. The positive outlook for the settlement of refugees is also present in Canada. After the first 5 years of arrival in Canada, refugees have similar economic prospects and unemployment as a Canadian born citizen. These refugees contribute back to their communities with higher entrepreneurial rates then Canadian born citizens. There are currently nearly 100,000 asylum cases pending for people trying to find security in Canada, and we should welcome as many of them as possible.

As we move towards the 70th anniversary of the United Nations Convention on the Status of Refugees, we are faced with the stark reality that the pressures forcing people to flee their homes are only increasing. It is our responsibility to support initiatives like Amnesty Canada’s I Welcome Refugees and reaffirm the global responsibility to protect the inherent right of all refugees and displaced persons to safety and security. 

Amnesty International Canada stands for increasing international cooperation to protect the rights of all humans. To join and contribute to the I Welcome Refugees campaign, find more information here.

Checkout the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and their reports for the current global trends in displacements here.

The Great Canoe Journey

By Jemma O’Malley

On November 7th, members from McGill Students for Amnesty International were fortunate to attend a workshop focusing on water and the history of the birchbark canoe. The discussion-based workshop began with a brainstorming activity surrounding local water issues as well as thinking about water as having its own rights. The conversation ranged from the recent report of lead-laced drinking water, the pollution of local waterways, and the severely inadequate access to clean water among Indigenous communities.          

A representative from Waterlution, an action orientated organization focusing on water sustainability, lead the group in a ‘water embodiment’ activity. Each participant shared a word they associated with water and physically embodied the meaning of the word by using hand gestures and facial expressions. This allowed students to connect with the meaning and importance of water in their everyday lives.

The Story of the Birchbark Canoe          

After an initial conversation about water issues in Canada, Metis Canoe Builder Christian Pilon shared the history and cultural significance of the birchbark canoe. He explained that the canoe was the primary means of transportation for the Omàmiwinini, Haudenosaunee, and Anishinaabe peoples among many other Indigenous groups. They allowed nomadic peoples to travel and trade in the interior of Canada and were later used by voyagers in the fur trade. The watercraft facilitated the sharing of knowledge, resources, land, and water which continue to bridge the ancestral stories of Indigenous and French-Canadian heritage.

Christian Pilon
Photo credit to Waterlution

Christian Pilon builds birchbark canoes in the same way as his ancestors by only using materials found in nature. Following the traditional stories of his past, Pilon describes the vessel’s construction as being a reflection of the composition of the human body. Birchbark is waterproof like human skin and forms the exterior of the vessel. The frame and interior are made from cedar that behaves like muscles to strengthen and support the boat. Like tendons, roots from the spruce tree are flexible and are used to tie pieces of the canoe together. Finally, the sap of the spruce tree seals the canoe just as blood seals wounds on the human body. 

Pilon views the canoe as being a symbol of connection and continues to use it as a way to build relationships between people with their ancestors and paddlers of the past. 

Big Takeaways

Students were asked to reflect on their experience at the end of the workshop and discussed personal plans of action to implement on a daily basis. A common takeaway for many students was the power of sharing. Christian Pilon explained the historical importance of sharing for his Anishinaabe ancestors and how it allows for knowledge to be distributed for the benefit of entire communities. Not only do stories play a central role in connecting people to their history but allow people to learn from one another. In Anishinaabe culture, storytelling is done in circles where everyone can be seen, heard, and respected. This way of sharing knowledge is inclusive and interactive, allowing everyone an equal opportunity to participate and share their own ideas. 

A few students discussed the idea of sharing in their everyday lives and described feeling frustrated with the competitive nature of learning on university campuses. A goal for these students is to actively work to build a learning environment that is collaborative and encourages people to contribute their unique knowledge and experiences. 

Other students focused on another theme of Christian Pilon’s storytelling, specifically that of the relationship between humankind and nature. For his ancestors, nature was honoured and given the same respect as is given to a human being. Canoe builders ask the birch tree for permission before using some of it’s bark, roots, and sap. Treating nature with the same respect as people allows it to be appreciated for everything it provides. Water, minerals, and trees are essential to the survival of humankind, yet can all exist peacefully without human intervention. 

People need nature, nature does not need people.

Learn More 

Learn more about Metis Canoe Builder Christian Pilon and his work connecting Canadians to their ancestry through the art of storytelling. Share what you learn and learn from those you share with! 

Check out Waterlution and their global network of innovative and sustainable water programs. They are dedicated to drawing attention to the globe’s shared interest, water. 

Amnesty International is teaming up with Indigenous water defenders to take action on the polluted waterways across Canada. Despite the fact that contaminated water is severely affecting Indigenous communities, the Canadian government has done little to address these human rights violations. Join the campaign and take action here.

Defending Water, Defending Rights

By Emma Wiseman

The human right to water, as defended by the United Nations, entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, and physically accessible water. Yet, at any given time, there are over 100 cases of water advisories in First Nation communities in Canada. These cases can range from contaminated water to outright inaccessibility, and each one can take years to fix.

To defend the right to water is to address the ongoing human rights violations that aren’t being properly addressed by the Canadian federal government. Here’s a quick overview of the issue, and some of the campaigns that are trying to take action. 

How Does This Happen? 

In Canada, water quality standards fall under provincial jurisdiction: this means that each province enforces different policies pertaining to the safety and access to water. However, any community that falls under national jurisdiction instead doesn’t have any legal standards of water to protect their rights. First Nations communities fall into this category, which is largely how they are so vulnerable to a lack of infrastructure and a failure to obtain safe water. 

In addition, as outlined by the Indian Act, First Nations communities have been made almost completely dependant on the federal government for the rights to “Band Moneys”: the revenue generated on reserve land. This means that any time a First Nation community would like access to financial resources, they have to go through the government. This makes aid and infrastructure a long and laborious process, often resulting in no funding at all

What Does it Look Like? 

Water advisories can range from warnings to boil water before consuming, to outright non-consumption. Cases are most frequently due to a lack of environmental regulation, and a lack of infrastructure. 

Recently, the case for Grassy Narrows has surfaced on the news: a Northern Ontario community that has been trying to deal with mercury-contaminated water for over 50 years, a result of dumping from a paper mill. It is estimated that 90% of the population suffers from mercury poisoning. But this is far from the only case that has failed to be addressed. In Mount Polley, after the largest environmental mining disaster in Canadian history sent waste water into Quesnel Lake, action still hasn’t been taken to clean the water. Since 2014, residents have not been able to use take any resources from the lake. 

Without safe drinking water, there is a high health risk for problems such as waterborne illnesses, influenza, infection and pneumonia. 

These cases have been normalized. Boiling water to access drinking water is a given for First Nation communities across Canada. 

Rights of Water? 

A new tactic for re-thinking the way we interact with natural resources – and the way we can ensure environmental regulation – is to give resources their own rights. This means that instead of focusing on the rights to water, we focus on the rights of water. But what would this look like? 

In both India and New Zealand, rivers have been given the same rights as humans: they have the right to life. Construction, electrical dams and pollution infringe upon this right. If these rights can be legally recognized and upheld, then environmental regulations can be more easily accessed and implemented. For example, in Ecuador, nature has rights: when a river was violated by road construction, a case was brought up on its behalf, and action was ordered to fix the situation. 

Creating rights of water not only allows for water to be protected, but it helps change the way we think about nature. Not as a commodity, but as something integral to our planet.

Get Involved! 

Amnesty International Canada has a campaign to defend water. The campaign is launching on World Water Day in order to raise awareness about the ongoing human rights violations that pertain to the failure to uphold the rights to water. Check it out for ways you can get involved!

Waterlution is a project-driven organisation looking to build a healthy and sustainable relationship with water. They focus on building skilled youth leaders and powerful communities to enact change. Take a look at some of the awesome work they’re doing!

Interested in something hands-on? Join McGill Students for Amnesty International on November 7th, from 6 to 7:45 pm, for a workshop on Canoe knowledge and water. The event will take place in Burnside Hall Room 1B23.

Learn from Metis Canoe Builder Christian Pilon about the craftsmanship of birchbark canoes and the rich history of the Metis people, and take part in a water appreciation activity! An incredible opportunity to connect human rights, Indigenous rights, and the rights of water. RSVP here!